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Полезные документы:
  IANA Policy
  IANA Policy рус.


The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is responsible for the
overall coordination and management of the Domain Name System, and
especially the delegation of portions of the name space called
top-level domains.  Most of these top-level domains are two-letter
country codes taken from the ISO standard 3166.

A central Internet Registry (IR) has been selected and designated to
handled the bulk of the day-to-day administration of the Domain Name
System.  Applications for new top-level domains (for example, country
code domains) are handled by the IR with consultation with the IANA.
The central IR is INTERNIC.NET.

This memo describes the policy concerns involved when a new top-level
domain is established usually by delegating its management to a
"designated manager" for the top-level domain.  Also mentioned are
concerns raised when it is necessary to change the delegation of an
established domain from one party to another.

Most of these same concerns are relevant when a sub-domain is
delegated and in general the principles described here apply
recursively to all delegations of the Internet DNS name space.

The major concern in selecting a designated manager for a domain is
that it be able to carry out the necessary responsibilities, and have
the ability to do a equitable, just, honest, and competent job.

1) The key requirement from the IANA's point of view is that for each
domain there be a designated manager for supervising that domain's
name space.  In the case of top-level domains that are country codes
this means that there is a manager that supervises the domain names
and operates the domain name system in that country.

The manager must, of course, be on the Internet.  There must be
Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity to the nameservers and email
connectivity to the management and staff of the manager.

There must be an administrative contact and a technical contact for
each domain.  For top-level domains that are country codes at least
the administrative contact must reside in the country involved.

2) These designated authorities are trustees for the delegated
domain, and have a duty to serve the community.

The designated manager is the trustee of the top-level domain for
both the nation, in the case of a country code, and the global
Internet community.

Concerns about 'rights' and 'ownership' of domains are inappropriate.
It is appropriate to be concerned about 'responsibilities' and
'service' to the community.

3) The designated manager must be equitable to all groups in the
domain that request domain names.

This means that the same rules are applied to all requests, all
requests must be processed in a non-discriminatory fashion, and academic
and commercial (and other) users are treated on an equal basis.  No
bias shall be shown regarding requests that may come from customers of
some other business related to the manager -- e.g., no preferential
service for customers of a particular data network provider.  There
can be no requirement that a particular mail system (or other
application), protocol, or product be used.

There are no requirements on subdomains of top-level domains beyond the
requirements on higher-level domains themselves.  That is, the
requirements in this memo are applied recursively.  In particular, all
subdomains shall be allowed to operate their own domain name servers,
providing in them whatever information the subdomain manager sees fit
(as long as it is true and correct).

4) That significantly interested parties in the domain agree that
the designated manager is the appropriate party.

The IANA tries to have any contending parties reach agreement among 
themselves, and generally takes no action to change things unless all
the contending parties agree; only in cases where the designated 
manager has substantially mis-behaved would the IANA step in.

However it is appropriate for interested parties to have some voice in
selecting the designated manager.

There are two cases where the IANA and the central IR may establish a
new top-level domain and delegate only a portion of it: (1) there are
contending parties that cannot agree, or (2) the applying party may
not be able to represent or serve the whole country.  The later case
sometimes arises when a party outside a country is trying to be
helpful in getting networking started in a country -- this is
sometimes called a "proxy" DNS service.

The Internet DNS Names Review Board (IDNB), a committee established by
the IANA, will act as a review panel for cases in which the parties can
not reach agreement among themselves.  The IDNB's decisions will be binding.

5) That the designated manager do a satisfactory job of operating
the DNS service for the domain.

That is, the actual management of the assigning of domain names,
delegating subdomains and operating nameservers must be done with
technical competence.  This includes keeping the central IR (in the
case of top-level domains) or other higher-level domain manager
advised of the status of the domain, responding to requests in a
timely manner, and operating the database with accuracy, robustness,
and resilience.

There must be a primary and a secondary nameserver that have IP
connectivity to the Internet and can be easily checked for operational
status and database accuracy by the IR and the IANA.

6) For any transfer of the designated manager trusteeship from one
organization to another, the higher-level domain manager (the IANA in
the case of top-level domains) must receive communications from both
the old organization and the new organization that assure the IANA
that the transfer in mutually agreed, and that the new organization
understands its responsibilities.

It is also very helpful for the IANA to receive communications from
other parties that may be concerned or affected by the transfer.

                                                          Jon Postel
hostmaster @ ns.od.ua